For Ethiopia, Woldehanna shows that the income effect of the agricultural extension program dominates, reducing child paid and unpaid work and increasing hours of schooling time by about 1 h per day. Results for adult labor, poverty, extreme poverty, and inequality are not different from the first scenario. For the full sample, we estimate five variants of the basic mortality regression Table Her research interests include poverty and income distribution issues, with emphasis on multiple dimensions of child poverty; the impact of climate change on agriculture; environment and natural resource economics. The authors inform us that the impacts on the Malian children are particularly worrisome due to their already precarious situation in terms of nutrition, school participation, child labor, and access to health services.

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A first set of papers pushes traditional income-based poverty analysis to focus on the issue of identification and measurement of child poverty in a multidimensional framework. Following Mosley and Chen and Schultz and starting with the household production function, we can integrate the underlying production process with household choices to derive a reduced-form 4 child health production function with the following relationships:.

While we have estimated a 0. We generate the dominance surface by varying the poverty lines Z x and Z y over an appropriately chosen domain.

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This could be a pointer to declining quality of primary education as a result of congestion, lack of teachers, and insufficient primary school infrastructure. By comparing appropriately those who receive the interventions treatment group and those who do not control groupit is possible to establish impact, attributing observed changes in welfare to the intervention, while identifying key factors of success. The study is based on the premise that this intervention v0041 led to enhanced access to education by children from poor backgrounds.

Per capita GDP, an indicator of economic and social development, has been declining. Another interesting message from the chapter is that children from households that did not experience mortality tended to be better off, in terms of the asset index, than children from households that experienced mortality. Most of the characteristics vary, albeit marginally across surveys. Batana and Duclos find considerable heterogeneity in the rural—urban gaps among the different countries, such that country rankings vary considerably depending on whether the focus is solely on urban or rural areas.


When decomposing inequality by area of residence, the overlap would refer to children ranked as less poor in one area but would be ranked poorer if the mean level of the wealth measure in another area is considered. Investment programme for the economic recovery strategy for wealth and employment creation, — Further, the surface will be influenced by the covariance between assets and the probability of child survival, because the integrand is multiplicative.

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From the literature, one would fep to find none or at the least a weak negative correlation between mortality and GNP, and would expect increased health expenditures to reduce mortality.

We present first-order dominance tests for asset poverty by region, by rural and urban areas, and by childhood mortality whether the child is from a household that experienced death of a child or not.

The results do not hold much promise for achievement of ERS and MDG targets, but show that these policy variables can make some contribution. First, there are increasing empirical studies on poverty and child health determination based on Demographic and Health Survey DHS data. For regional and gender analysis, we focus on the basic model but include c0041 rural area dummy for the gender models Table f00441 The absolute Lorenz curve for assets and the absolute concentration curve for child-survival probability are presented in Fig.

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Dominque f00041 de Walle and Kimberly Nead. The impact is only significant for girls. The results suggest that both inequality and progressivity are relatively higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Poverty orderings and welfare dominance. A surprising result is that compared to no education, completion of primary schooling reduces f0041 hazard rate by a much larger proportion than completion of secondary education. This is a necessary but not a sufficient test because it can only tell us whether there is stochastic dominance or not.


The final scenario provides the same allowance to all children, whether they attend secondary school or not and regardless of the number of children in the household. This means that evaluation of the MDG target is more realistic based on the than the mortality rate. In most developing countries, poverty rates remain high in spite of government commitments to providing basic services to children.

For urban areas, the amount of time spent by girls in paid work and by boys in both paid and unpaid work declined substantially.

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Some of the other explanatory variables that do have significant effects in reducing the probability of mortality include household assets, maternal education, and access to health-care variables Table This AI possesses all the important inequality axioms and most importantly, all axioms are consistent and continue to be so when the mean is negative or equal to zero see Araar, for a detailed discussion of the axioms of the absolute Gini index.

These variables are measured at the year of birth of the child and are therefore highly aggregated. For secondary and higher levels of education we combine these two categories because the latter has relatively few observationswe simulate the impact of raising completion rates to the primary school level.

We uncover no important impact of macro- and regional-level variables GNP, health expenditure, and health facilities on mortality.